Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Language, Education and Innovation 2015
ISBN 978-967-13140-9-8

HOTs in the Malaysian Classroom: A Teachers’ Perspective

Norherani Moning, Grace Chang Siew Yeng

Institute of Teacher Education Ilmu Khas Campus, Malaysia


Attempts to teach thinking skills were noted in 1993 in the Malaysian classrooms as an effort to develop students’ rational, critical and creative thinking, to acquire knowledge, mastery of skills, and to use them in their daily lives. In 1994, elements of creative and critical thinking skills (CCTS) were included in conducting both pre- and in-service courses in teacher training colleges. This move was essential as to bring changes into the classrooms, teachers must be well equipped with the necessary skills or knowledge. Recently the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE) “step-up” the efforts in this direction by giving emphasis to Higher Order Thinking skills (HOTs) in the teaching-learning process. HOTs is tasked as the means to the ends – developing creative and critical thinkers in the Malaysian classroom, thus make possible effective problem solvers in the workforce. This study is an attempt to examine teachers’ perspective of HOTs and its implementation in two secondary schools. Teachers from different subjects were given questionnaires of their involvement in HOTs training and implementing in the classrooms. Three teachers were interviewed for closer examination of their beliefs and pedagogical practices in the classroom. Data was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Findings showed that HOTs activities were practised in the classes but differ in percentages in different subjects.


Higher Order Thinking, teacher’s beliefs, pedagogical practice

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